This page is a work in progress. We are in the process of transferring the citations, links, keywords and abstracts from our research collection.

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Autret, A. et al. (1987) Clinical section: Two distinct classifications of adult epilepsies: by time of seizures and by sensitivity of the interictal paroxysmal activities to sleep and waking. Electroencephalography And Clinical Neurophysiology, 66, pp. 211-218.
Keywords: adult epileptics; sleep-waking; interictal paroxysmalactivities
Abstract: Two hundred and thirty-six adult epileptic outpatients were classified twice: firstly according to the time of seizures reported by the patient or his family in diurnal, nocturnal, awaking and diffuse epilepsies (Es) and secondly according to the sensitivity to sleep or waking of the interictal paroxysmalactivities (PA) observed during a polysomnographic night session with a sleep PA increase, with a waking PA increase, with PA indifferent to sleep and waking or with few or no PA. The stability of the sensitivity of the PA to sleep and waking was 84%. [Continued]

Ahuja, G., & Mohanta, A. (1982) Late onset epilepsy. A prospective study. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 66 (2), pp. 216-226.
Keywords: Aetiology of epilepsy; late onset epilepsy
Abstract: 253 cases of late onset epilepsy were studied prospectively. 27 cases (10.7%) had space-occupying lesion, 19 cases (7.5%) had cerebrovascular disease, 13 cases (5.1 %) cerebral cysticercosis and 4 cases (1.6 %) had diffuse cerebral atrophy. No cause could be detected in 190 cases (75.1 %). [Continued]

Balish, M., Albert, P., & Theodore, W. (1991) Seizure frequency in intractable partial epilepsy: a statistical analysis. Epilepsia, 32(5), pp. 642-649.
Keywords: Intractable partial epilepsy; Seizure frequency; Cyclicity; Variability; Clustering
Abstract: We examined the seizure records of 13 patients (nine men and four women, ages 27–50 years) with intractable partial epilepsy, maintained with steady anti-epileptic drug dosages. Patients recorded daily seizure frequency on calendars. Periods of outpatient observation ranged from 99 to 1,710 days and the number of observed seizures ranged from 18 to over 400, with daily seizure rates of 0.1–4.3 per day. [Continued]

Belinda, J. et al. (2010) Hypertension in pregnancy: A comprehensive update. Cardiology in Review, 18 (4), pp. 178-189.
Abstract: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancies remain a central public health concern throughout the world, and are a major cause of maternal mortality in the developing world. Although treatment options have not significantly changed in recent years, insight on the pathogenesis of preeclampsia/eclampsia has been remarkable. [Continued]

Chihorek, A., Abou-Khalil, B., & Malow, B. (2007). Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with seizure occurrence in older adults with epilepsy. Neurology, 69 (19), pp. 1823-1827.
Abstract: Although epileptic seizures occur more commonly in older adults, their occurrence in this age group is often unexplained. One unexplored precipitant of seizures in older adults is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is also more common in this age group. Our objective was to investigate whether OSA is associated with seizure exacerbation in older adults with epilepsy. [Continued]

Del Felice et al. (2010) Early versus late remission in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Epilepsia, 51 (1), pp. 37-42.
Keywords: Prognosis; Epilepsy; Remission; Prognostic predictors
Abstract: To count patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy entering early and late remission and to identify prognostic predictors of late remission. [Continued]

Fenichel, G. (1988). Pertussis: the disease and the vaccine. Pediatric Neurology, 4 (4), pp. 201-206.
Abstract: Pertussis is a serious respiratory disease in infants. Immunization prevents infection in some; in others it permits infection but prevents disease. Epidemics occur when immunization rates fall. [Continued]

Gonzalez-Reyes, R.E., Gonzalez-Reyes, A.M. (2007) Review: Manganese and epilepsy: A systematic review of the literature. Brain Research Reviews, 53, pp. 332-336.
Keywords: Epilepsy; Trace element; Manganese; Seizure; Nervous system physiology
Abstract: Manganese is an essential trace element for the development and function of the central nervous system. Alterations in manganese concentrations, whether excessive or deficient, can be accompanied by convulsions. This article represents a systematic review of available quantitative evidence that might clarify this issue. [Continued]

Goulding, N., & Hall, N. (1993). Rhythms in the immune system. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 58 (2), pp. 249-261.
Abstract: This report reviews the evidence that cells within the immune system are subject to rhythmic influences that affect numbers of circulating cells and their function both in vitro and in vivo. It is concluded that, although periodicity has clearly been demonstrated for numbers of immunocompetent cells in the circulation, significant functional changes have not been consistently observed. A number of neuroendocrine hormones, which modulate immune responsiveness in vitro and which are released in a rhythmic manner, are considered as mediators of the observed effects on the immune system and this is related to changes in expression and activity of immune-mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

Halperin, S.A. and Marrie, T.J. (1991) Pertussis Encephalopathy in an Adult: Case Report and Review. Reviews Of Infectious Diseases, 13 (6), pp. 1043-1047.
Abstract: A 39-year-old man developed paroxysmal cough, occasional vomiting after cough, and subconjunctival hemorrhage. His illness was complicated by episodes of seizure, with clonic movements of the arms and legs, brief loss of consciousness, and confusion. The episodes were triggered by mild, unremarkable coughing paroxysms. A diagnosis of pertussis was confirmed serologically by measurement of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin. [Continued]

Haus, E., & Smolensky, M. (1999) Biologic rhythms in the immune system. Chronobiology International, 16 (5), pp. 581-622.
Keywords: Allergy, Asthma, Cellular immune response, Cytokines, Humoral immune response, Immune system, Inflammation, White blood cells
Abstract: In all of its components, the immune system shows regularly recurring, rhythmic variations in numerous frequencies; the circadian (about 24h) rhythms are the best explored. The circadian variations in immunocompetent cells circulating in the peripheral blood are of a magnitude to require attention in medical diagnostics. Both the humoral arm and the delayed (cellular) arm of the immune system function in a rhythmic manner. The response of the immune system to introduction of an antigen and to challenge of the sensitized organism varies in extent in the circadian frequency range and also in lower frequencies, for example, of about a week (circaseptan) or seasonally (circannual). [Continued]

Haut, S.R. (2006) Seizure clustering. Epilepsy & Behavior, 8, pp. 50–55.
Keywords: Cluster; Seizure clustering; Poisson; Intractable epilepsy; Acute repetitive seizures; Serial seizures; Status epilepticus
Abstract: Seizure clusters, also known as repetitive or serial seizures, occur commonly in epilepsy. Clustering implies that the occurrence of one seizure may influence the probability of a subsequent seizure; thus, the investigation of the clustering phenomenon yields insights into both specific mechanisms of seizure clustering and more general concepts of seizure occurrence. [Continued]

Herman, S.T., Walczak, T.S. and Bazil, C.W. (2001) Distribution of partial seizures during the sleep-wake cycle: Differences by seizure onset site. Neurology, 56, pp. 1453-1459.
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effects of sleep on partial seizures arising from various brain regions. Methods: The authors prospectively studied 133 patients with localization-related epilepsy undergoing video-EEG monitoring over a 2-year period. Seizure type, site of onset, sleep/wake state at onset, duration, and epilepsy syndrome diagnosis were recorded. [Continued]

Herzog, A.G., Klein P., Ransil B.J. (1997) Three patterns of catamenial epilepsy. Epilepsia, 38, pp. 1082–1088
Keywords: Epilepsy; Catamenial; Menstrual; Hormones
Abstract: On the basis of the neuroactive properties of estradiol and progesterone and the menstrually related cyclic variations of their serum concentrations, we propose the existence of three hormonally based patterns of seizure exacerbation. Because previous reports both support and refute the concept of catamenial epilepsy, we test the hypothesis by charting seizures and menses and measuring midluteal serum progesterone levels to estimate the frequency of epileptic women with catamenial seizure exacerbation. [Continued]

Ifergan, I. et al. (2006) Statins reduce human blood-brain barrier permeability and restrict leukocyte migration: relevance to multiple sclerosis. Annals Of Neurology, 60 (1), pp. 45-55.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Dysregulation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and transendothelial migration of immune cells are among the earliest central nervous system changes partaking in lesion formation in both multiple sclerosis (MS) and its early clinical form, the clinically isolated syndrome. Evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors within the central nervous system arose from studies demonstrating that statins improve clinical signs in the animal model of MS and reduce the number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions in MS. [Continued]

Janigro, D. (1999) Blood–brain barrier, ion homeostasis and epilepsy: possible implications towards the understanding of ketogenic diet mechanisms. Epilepsy Research, 37, pp. 223-232.
Keywords: Brain metabolism and epilepsy; Potassium channels; GLUT1; Drug resistance; Blood–brain barrier; Drug delivery
Abstract: The finding that epileptic seizures alter blood–brain barrier (BBB) properties has stimulated interest into the possibility that phenotypic changes in brain endothelium may constitute a pathological initiator leading to seizures. Recent evidence obtained from epileptic patients undergoing cortical resection, demonstrated abnormal expression of glucose transporter molecules (GLUT1), while [18F] deoxyglucose PET studies demonstrated regions of decreased glucose uptake and hypometabolism in seizure foci. [Continued]

Kalayci, R. et al. (2005) Research report: Effects of atorvastatin on blood–brain barrier permeability during l-NAME hypertension followed by angiotensin-II in rats. Brain Research, 1042, pp. 184-193.
Keywords: Atorvastatin; Blood–brainbarrier; Evans blue; Glial fibrillary acidic protein; Nitric oxide deficiency; Occludin; Zonula occludens-1
Abstract: Recent studies suggest that 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, statins, can have direct effects on blood vessels beyond their cholesterol-lowering effects. We investigated the effects of atorvastatin on the functional and structural properties of blood–brainbarrier (BBB) and the activity of astrocytes during the Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) hypertension followed by angiotensin (ANG) II. [Continued]

Kilpatrick, C. et al. (1991) Magnetic resonance imaging and late-onset epilepsy. Epilepsia, 32 (3), pp. 358-364.
Keywords: Seizures; Neurologic diagnosis; Magnetic resonance imaging; Tomography; Aged
Abstract: The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in investigation of patients with late-onset epilepsy has not been studied systematically. We evaluated prospectively the usefulness of MRI in 50 patients with late-onset epilepsy in whom a computed tomography (CT) scan was normal (32), did not allow a definitive diagnosis to be made (12), or showed irrelevant lesions (6). [Continued]

Krumholz, A. et al. (2007) Practice parameter: Evaluating an apparent unprovoked first seizure in adults (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Neurology, 69, pp. 1996-2007.
Abstract: The Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology develops practice parameters as strategies for patient care based on analysis of evidence. For this practice parameter the authors reviewed available evidence relevant to evaluating adults presenting with an apparent unprovoked first seizure. [Continued]

Kügler, S. et al. (2007) Pertussis toxin transiently affects barrier integrity, organelle organization and transmigration of monocytes in a human brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier model. Cellular Microbiology, 9 (3), pp. 619-632.
Abstract: Encephalopathies and neurological disorders are sometimes associated with respiratory tract infections caused by Bordetella pertussis. For these complications to occur cerebral barriers have to be compromised. Therefore, the influence of pertussis toxin (PT), a decisive virulence determinant of B. pertussis, on endothelial barrier integrity was investigated. [Continued]

Lang, B. and Hart, Y. (2010) Autoimmune epilepsy. In: Panayiotopoulos, C.P., ed. Atlas of Epilepsies. London: Springer-Verlag, Chapter 21.
Abstract: Autoimmune epilepsies are epileptic syndromes occurring in association with serum autoantibodies presumed to be responsible or partly responsible for the development of the syndrome. Some syndromes may also involve T-cell mediated immunity.

López, J. et al. (1985) Late onset epileptic seizures: A retrospective study of 250 patients. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 72 (4), pp. 380.
Keywords: Computerized tomography; etiology of epilepsy; late onset epilepsy
Abstract: A retrospective study of 250 patients with late-onset epilepsy was carried out. The ages ranged from 22 to 88. The seizures were partial in 104 patients and generalized in 146. [Continued]

Marchi, N et al. (2007) Seizure-promoting effect of blood-brain barrier disruption. Epilepsia, 48 (4), pp. 732-742.
Keywords: Epileptogenesis; Endothelial cells; Cerebrovascular disease; Tight junctions
Abstract: It is generally accepted that blood–brain barrier (BBB) failure occurs as a result of CNS diseases, including epilepsy. However, evidences also suggest that BBB failure may be an etiological factor contributing to the development of seizures. [Continued]

Menge, T., Hartung, H., and Stüve, O. (2005) Statins--a cure-all for the brain?. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 6(4), pp. 325-331.
Abstract: 'Statins' are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors — oral cholesterol-lowering drugs that are used to treat hypercholesterolaemia. It is widely accepted that statins have anti-inflammatory effects that are independent of their ability to lower cholesterol. Animal studies and observational clinical studies have indicated that statins might also be effective in treating certain neurological diseases — in particular, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and ischaemic stroke. [Continued]

Milton, J., Gotman, J., Remillard, G., & Andermann, F. (1987) Timing of seizure recurrence in adult epileptic patients: a statistical analysis. Epilepsia, 28(5), pp. 471-478.
Keywords: Epilepsy; Seizures; Periodicity; Activity cycles; Mathematics; Point process
Abstract: Seizure diaries were maintained prospectively in 24 epileptic patients (19 with partial complex, three with partial simple, and three with primary generalized seizures) who were selected consecutively, had stable seizure patterns, were reliable historians, and were known to be compliant with medications. Diaries were maintained for an average of 237 days (range, 61–365), and an average of 18 seizures were recorded per patient (range, 5–76). Seizure patterns were analyzed by using the methods appropriate for a time series of events (point process). [Continued]

Monaco, F., Mutani, R., Durelli, L., & Delsedime, M. (1975). Free amino acids in serum of patients with epilepsy: significant increase in taurine. Epilepsia, 16(2), pp. 245-249.
Keywords: Epilepsy; Amino acids in serum; Taurine increase in serum; Blood-brain barrier
Abstract: More than half the amino acids determined in serum were lower in patients with epilepsy than in control subjects. Taurine was the only amino acid to be increased in epilepsy. The changes could represent a compensatory metabolic reaction to limit the imbalance of amino acids in epileptic brain and to facilitate uptake of taurine, which has an anticonvulsant action.

Mueller, S.M. and Heistad, D.D. (1980) Effect of chronic hypertension on the blood-brain barrier. Hypertension, 2, pp. 809-812.
Keywords: Blood-brain barrier; Hypertensive encephalopathy; Cerebrovascular permeability; Protein transfer; Brain
Abstract: Autoimmune epilepsies are epileptic syndromes occurring in association with serum autoantibodies presumed to be responsible or partly responsible for the development of the syndrome. Some syndromes may also involve T-cell mediated immunity. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during acute hypertension may contribute to hypertensive encephalopathy. In this study we tested the hypothesis that, in chronic hypertension, vascular changes might influence the susceptibility of the BBB to disruption. [Continued]

Oby, E., & Janigro, D. (2006) The blood-brain barrier and epilepsy. Epilepsia, 47 (11), pp. 1761-1774.
Keywords: Antiepileptic drugs; Membrane transport proteins; Monosaccharide transport proteins; Epileptogenesis; Cerebral blood flow
Abstract: During the past several years, there has been increasing interest in the role of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in epilepsy. Advances in neuroradiology have enhanced our ability to image and study the human cerebrovasculature, and further developments in the research of metabolic deficiencies linked to seizure disorders (e.g., GLUT1 deficiency), neuroinflammation, and multiple drug resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have amplified the significance of the BBB's relationship to epilepsy. [Continued]

Oksi, J. et al. (1996) Inflammatory brain changes in Lyme borreliosis: a report on three patients and review of literature. Brain: A Journal Of Neurology, 119 (part 6), pp. 2143-2154.
Keywords: Borrelia burgdorferi; Lyme disease; neuroborreliosis; neuropathology; vasculitis
Abstract: Despite a rapid increase in the number of patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), its neuropathological aspects are poorly understood. The objective of this study was evaluation of neuropathological, microbiological, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in three patients with the Borrelia burgdorferi infection and neurological disease from whom brain tissue specimens were available. [Continued]

Pardridge, W. M., Connor, J. D., Crawford, I. L., & Oldendorf, W. H. (1975). Permeability Changes in the Blood-Brain Barrier: Causes and Consequences. Critical Reviews In Toxicology, 3(2), p.p. 159-199.
[No online abstract]

Rigau, V. et al. (2007) Angiogenesis is associated with blood–brain barrier permeability in temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain (2007) 130(7), pp. 1942-1956.
Keywords: temporal lobe epilepsy; angiogenesis; vascular endothelial growth factor; blood-brain barrier disruption; IgG leakage
Abstract: Previous studies from our group, focusing on neuro-glial remodelling in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), have shown the presence of immature vascular cells in various areas of the hippocampus. Here, we investigated angiogenic processes in hippocampi surgically removed from adult patients suffering from chronic intractable TLE, with various aetiologies. [Continued]

Sena, A., Pedrosa, P., and Morais, M.G. (2007) Letter to the Editor: Beneficial effect of statins in multiple sclerosis: Is it dose-dependent? Atherosclerosis, 191, p. 462.
Keywords: Statins; Multiplesclerosis; Inflammation

Song, T., Kim, S., Kim, G., Choi, Y., & Kim, W. (2010). The Prevalence of Thyrotoxicosis-Related Seizures. Thyroid, 20 (9), pp. 955-958.
Abstract: Central nervous system dysfunction, such as hyperexcitation, irritability, and disturbance of consciousness, may occur in patients with thyrotoxicosis. There are also a few case reports of seizures attributed to thyrotoxicosis. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of seizures that appeared to be related to the thyrotoxic state in patients with thyrotoxicosis. [Continued]

Sunderam, S., Osorio, I. and Frei, M.G. (2007) Clinical research: Epileptic seizures are temporally interdependent under certain conditions. Epilepsy Research, pp. 7677-84.
Keywords: Seizures; Predictability; ECoG; Temporal; Serial dependency; Surrogate
Abstract: The possibility that seizures may be intercorrelated has not been sufficiently investigated. A handful of studies, the majority based on patient seizure diaries, provide disparate results: some claim that seizures are serially correlated and others that they are random events. This study investigates the effect that a seizure may have on the time of occurrence and severity of subsequent ones in subjects undergoing invasive surgical evaluation. [Continued]

Tauboll, E. et al. (1986) Association between regularly occurring complex partial seizures and thyroid function parameters. Epilepsia, 27 (4), pp. 419-422.
Keywords: Complex partial seizures; Thyroid hormones; Biological rhythms
Abstract: A 28-year-old man with regularly occurring clusters of complex partial seizures was studied over a total of 224 days. His seizure periods lasted 2–4 days and occurred at intervals of 5–6 weeks. Several parameters were studied. The most striking finding was an increase in the serum concentration of thyroxine prior to and during the seizure periods. The concentrations of urine catecholamines and serum cortisol also varied with the seizure periods, but these hormones increased after the seizure periods had begun. To determine if there is a general 4–6-week rhythm in thyroid hormone concentrations, 12 weekly blood samples from 10 healthy male students were analyzed. No rhythmicity was found.

Tauboll, E., Lundervold, A. and Gjerstad, L. (1991) Temporal distribution of seizures in epilepsy. Epilepsy Research, 8, pp. 153-165.
Keywords: Epilepsy; Biorhythms; Stochastic processes; Seizure occurrence; Catamenial epilepsy
Abstract: A major problem in epileptology is why a seizure occurs at a particular moment in time. An initial step in solving this problem is a detailed analysis of the temporal distribution of seizures. Using methods and theories of stochastic processes, seizure patterns in a group of epileptic outpatients were examined for stationarity, randomness, dependency and periodicity in a prospective study. [Continued]

van der, Most, P. et al. (2009) Statins: Mechanisms of neuroprotection. Progress In Neurobiology, 88, pp. 64-75.
Keywords: Statin; Neuroprotection; Alzheimer's disease; Inflammation; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Multiple sclerosis
Abstract: Clinical trials report that the class of drugs known as statins may be neuroprotective in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, and further trials are currently underway to test whether these drugs are also beneficial in multiple sclerosis and acute stroke treatment. Since statins are well tolerated and have relatively few side effects, they may be considered as viable drugs to ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanism of their neuroprotective effects is only partly understood. In this article, we review the current data on the neuroprotective effects of statins and their underlying mechanisms. [Continued]

van Vliet, A. et al. (2007) Blood–brain barrier leakage may lead to progression of temporal lobe epilepsy Brain, 130 (2): pp. 521-534.
Keywords: albumin; seizure; fluorescein; Evans Blue; mannitol; status epilepticus
Abstract: Leakage of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is associated with various neurological disorders, including temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, it is not known whether alterations of the BBB occur during epileptogenesis and whether this can affect progression of epilepsy. [Continued]

Villanueva, V., & Serratosa, J. (2005) Temporal lobe epilepsy: clinical semiology and age at onset. Epileptic Disorders, 7 (2), pp. 83-90.
Keywords: temporal epilepsy, semiology, video-EEG, age, evolution of semiology
Abstract: The objective of this study was to define the clinical semiology of seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy according to the age at onset. We analyzed 180 seizures from 50 patients with medial or neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy who underwent epilepsy surgery between 1997-2002, and achieved an Engel class I or II outcome. [Continued]

Wang, Q. et al. (2011) Review: Statins: Multiple neuroprotective mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental Neurology, 230 (Interaction between Repair, Disease, & Inflammation), pp. 27-34.
Keywords: Statins; Inflammation; Ischemia; Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; Neuroprotection
Abstract: Statins have been widely used for the treatment of a variety of conditions beyond their original role in lowering cholesterol. Since statins have relatively few side effects, they have been recognized as useful medicine to ameliorate neurodegenerative disorders. Current studies on the applications of statins have demonstrated their neuroprotective and clinical significance among neurodegenerative diseases like cerebral ischemic stroke, vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, though the neuroprotective mechanisms are not completely understood. [Continued]

Yalyn, O. et al. (2006) A comparison of the circadian rhythms and the levels of melatonin in patients with diurnal and nocturnal complex partial seizures. Epilepsy And Behavior, 542-546.
Keywords: Melatonin; Circadian rhythm; Nocturnal complex partial epilepsy
Abstract: The aim of the present work was to assess serum melatonin levels and melatonin circadian rhythm in patients with diurnal and nocturnal complex partial epilepsy. Daily rhythms of melatonin were studied in patients with diurnal complex partial epilepsy (n = 10), patients with nocturnal complex partial epilepsy (n = 10), and a control group (n = 10). [Continued]

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